Blog of the International Sociological Association (ISA)

The Israeli Council for Higher Education Versus Ben Gurion University

October 2, 2012 159 Comments

Adi Ophir, Cohn Institute for History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas and the Minerva Humanities Center at Tel Aviv University

The Subcommittee for Quality Assessment of the Israeli Council for Higher Education (CHE) has submitted a proposal to bar Ben Gurion University’s Department of Politics and Government from admitting students this year. This proposal follows a short report submitted by two international scholars, Professor Thomas Risse and Professor Ellen Immergut, about the university’s handling of another critical report prepared by an international committee CHE had appointed to audit departments of political science in Israeli universities. Appointed by the Israeli Minister of Education, CHE is a public body that is meant to preside over the management of Israeli universities and colleges, ensure their responsible budgetary management, and guarantee their academic autonomy. Recently, however, the Minister of Education, a radical right-wing figure, has appointed several right-leaning public representatives and academics as new CHE members and initiated several moves that were clearly political. The subcommittee’s proposal is a conclusive step toward closing the Department of Politics and Government, a department known in Israel for the political activism of some of its professors, some of whom are vocal and sharp critics of the Israeli regime.

The actions CHE has taken against the Department of Politics and Government are clearly politically motivated. The department has been an important target for Im Tirzu, a nationalist movement. Using McCarthyist methods, Im Tirzu persecutes non-Zionist academics systematically, encourages students to report “leftist” professors, and keeps track of syllabi in social science and humanities departments and evaluates them according to the movement’s own “Zionist” and “national” standards. Both the Minister of Education as well as a member of the auditing committee who has been particularly active in aggravating the report’s tone, Professor Avraham Diskin, are close to “Im Tirtzu” or at least, identify politically with the movement. Professor Moshe Maor, who serves as the chair of the CHE subcommittee, is a member of the Menachem Begin Heritage Center, and identifies himself as a supporter of right-wing politics. Indeed, some of the reasoning that appeared in a public announcement made by CHE’s spokesperson, as well as in clarifying letters sent later, was whitewashed political arguments.

The context in which the attack against the department is waged, which made the threat to close it concrete, is quintessentially political too. The Israeli regime along with the right-wing circles linked to it are promoting initiatives in all areas and institutional branches, to push those who identify with the political left out of positions of power. This is the case in the justice system, in the state attorney’s office, in the professional ranks of the Ministry of Education, on public radio and television, and in newspapers. This is the case in CHE itself, where representatives from universities were reduced in number, while “public representatives” and representatives from colleges, many of whom, as mentioned earlier, are right-wing figures, have increased.

Equally significant as the political context, is the academic context in which CHE’s proposal was made. Ben Gurion University’s Department of Politics and Government was originally founded as an alternative to what was considered mainstream political science in Israel. A quantitative and positivist research orientation dominated and continues to dominate the other four Israeli political science departments. The precondition that Ben Gurion University’s department follow a distinctive approach and pursue distinctive research topics was in fact originally established by CHE itself, more than a decade ago, when the department was first created. CHE followed a correctly pluralist approach then. Pluralism, in this case, like in many other cases, is a matter of focus. The other political science departments are not pluralistic: they include only a small minority of researchers that adopt interpretive, historical, and critical approaches, and these researchers tend to be marginal in their departments. The Department of Politics and Government at Ben Gurion University is not pluralistic because it does not give sufficient representation to quantitative and positivist research. But thanks to CHE’s decision, which was instrumental in establishing the department, political research in Israel became more pluralistic.

And indeed, the Department of Politics and Government gathered a group of outstanding scholars (the auditing committee report does not doubt this point), most of whom employ a variety of approaches that belong to the wide field of interpretive-historical research in social sciences. One of the most important characteristics of the interpretive approach, especially in its critical branches, is the fact that unlike most political science research, the state—the nation state in its current historical form—does not determine the coordinates within which research takes place, but is itself made an object of research. This is why the department is not called “the Department of Political Science,” but rather “the Department of Politics and Government.” The premise is that the state is a changing form of politics and government or governance, and these—not the state itself—are the elementary forms from which investigation should begin. Therefore, the problematization of the nation state is not necessarily an outcome of post-Zionist thinking, but of a critical historical approach to the state, its logic (raison d’être), and its apparatuses. One may very well adopt such an approach and be Zionist—indeed, there are such Zionist scholars in the Department of Politics and Government—but, in such cases, Zionist ideology would take on characteristics that would distinguish it from a right-wing Zionist ideology.

CHE appointed an auditing committee, in which none of the members could be counted as representing the critical historical approach to the study of state and politics. In no academic journal in this field, central or marginal, would the editors consider sending one of the committee members an article written by researchers in the department for review. No decent institution would ask them to review a file of a department scholar being evaluated for appointment, tenure, or promotion. Yet all of these people were convened to decide on the verdict of an entire academic department, whose research is in fact not in their field. The conclusive critical reasoning of the original report cited lack of scholarly pluralism in the department. They accused the department of insisting on studying a field that is its raison d’être. They accused the department of not balancing different academic approaches, as if balance in science is a matter similar to a T.V talk show.

Because of the political pressure and the palpable threat CHE posed, Ben Gurion University gave in, appointed new researchers that would satisfy the report’s demands, and made several changes in the curriculum. The last letter written by two international scholars, who had been appointed to keep track of the department’s implementation of the report, praises the University for successfully recruiting new researchers and calls on it to provide these researchers with resources and the time not only to conduct research, but also to develop a more diverse curriculum. This was the letter that the CHE subcommittee invoked to support its recommendation to stop enrollment in the department. That is, in the CHE subcommittee proposal, the allegation that the department lacks research diversity—fundamentally inaccurate in the first place, and which was addressed by the reforms Ben Gurion University adopted when it gave in to political pressure—remained the only guise for the political motivation behind the persecution of the department. In other words, the only rationale the subcommittee does rely on is flawed and contradicted by the content of the letter written by the very same international scholars that it cites.

In its blatant intervention in Ben Gurion University’s academic affairs, CHE does not only overstep the limits of its authority as defined by Israeli law, but it also violates the very principle of academic freedom. No academic department is obliged to give representation, let alone equal representation, to all scholarly approaches. Just as researchers should not be forced to adopt certain approaches, no one should impose a particular approach on departments. Departments should foster one or many academic approaches and prefer them to others based on their understanding of the state of knowledge. Departments should distinguish themselves from each other in their approaches to research and in the different emphases they put on history and theory, measurement, and comparison. CHE is not supposed to intervene in these matters. If there is an authority to correct an imbalance between different research approaches, that responsibility lies with the faculty and the university. Moreover, a perceived imbalance should be rectified by appointing new faculty members or opening new departments, not by closing existing departments filled with outstanding researchers. CHE’s decision has wide-reaching implications. It is not just a no-confidence vote in the Department of Politics and Government, but also a blatant intervention in the way Ben Gurion University navigates its academic affairs. Alas, the university has studied the auditing committee’s report, provided resources for new appointments in the department, decided in discussion with the department’s faculty what scholarly approaches should be added and from which specialties new researches should be recruited, followed the recruitment process closely, using international experts, and even required the department to adopt several changes in its curricula—and the university backs the department completely.

This is where we should consider the political conditions again.

We have good reason to believe that the decision to start the review process at CHE was driven from the beginning, to a large extent, by the desire to get rid of those “post-Zionists,” revisionist historians and critical sociologists that have been deconstructing mainstream Zionist meta-narrative and ideology since the early nineties. The simplistic reasoning behind this move goes something like this: critical theory = postmodernism + Marxism = post-Zionism. Who was selected to the auditing committees was certainly shaped by the effort to delegitimize anything that smells of critical theory. Last week CHE released another report, the general report of the evaluating committee for sociology and anthropology departments (in Israel the two are combined). Once again, their main target was critical theory; and indeed, this report should be studied in critical theory classes. The committee declares that “critical studies are controversial as areas within sociology” and should therefore “remain modest in size in any one department.” In a recent letter, Professor Maor, chair of the committee that recommended the sanction againt the Department of Politics and Government at BGU, uses precisely the same language to explain his recommendation. He could have quoted the report on the departments of sociology and anthropology in full, for this report goes on to explain that “critical studies are not part of the disciplinary core of the profession (i.e. sociology), contribute little to the prestige of a department in international arenas, and its representation in a sociology program should therefore be modest. This is best accomplished by limiting the number of sociology faculty in a department who are disposed to this theoretical approach and research style.” To this recommendation the committee then adds an interesting reservation: it should not apply to anthropologists. Why? Because critical theory “appears to be common in elite anthropology departments in the US and Western Europe… [and] the anthropological profession appears to have absorbed this conceptual orientation.”

Ever since the audit committee was created, the Department of Politics and Government has made little use of arguments about the legitimacy of its critical approaches, the scientific nature of political science, or the bias of the committee in this respect. The university administration, which has supported the department (more so today than in the past), was very reluctant to use this kind of argument because it mostly shares the spirit of positivism, along with the neoliberal ethos of quantification and of measurements of efficiency and excellence. Today, even though the threat to academic freedom is so blatant, the administration chooses to address CHE’s misconduct and the discrepancy between the “professional” report and the way CHE uses it.

One should keep in mind that Ben Gurion University is a peripheral academic institution; it depends on CHE much more than more established institutions like the Hebrew University and Tel Aviv University. It is the victim of a serious flaw in CHE’s conduct, a flaw that has led to the right-wing’s takeover of this body and the legitimacy that many of its members gave to the systematic persecution of leftist figures in Israeli academia in a political context where such persecutions are the norm. If the decision is made to bar Ben Gurion University from registering students in the Department of Politics and Government, it will create an opening for politicians and academics loyal to them, to dictate academic curricula in Israeli universities. This is nothing new, historically. But it may happen in Israel too.

That is why this is a critical moment for the future of Israeli higher education. Faculty in all universities must gather together to stop the closure of the Department of Politics and Government. We should demand from the heads of our universities not to leave Ben Gurion University alone in this battle against the subcommittee’s foolish proposal. We should make it clear that a Council for Higher Education that adopts this proposal will lose its academic legitimacy both in Israel and the rest of the world, and in a way that will have serious consequences for Israeli academia. We should make it clear that this is a violation of the accepted relationship between the regime and academia. We should make it clear that this violation necessitates a response, which can range from stopping all cooperation with CHE to calling a strike in the entire higher education system.

To support the Department of Politics and Government, visit the international petition here.

Read more about the entire affair (and look at relevant documents), in English, here.

Read CHE’s letter of clarification published in Haaretz on September 30, 2012, here.

159 Comments → “The Israeli Council for Higher Education Versus Ben Gurion University”

  1. Ronnie 4 years ago   Reply

    Feras Hammami’s comment on the petition is worth mentioning here:

    “I like academic freedom but I find a difficult argument for Israeli universities. We still remember what happened to Ilan Pappé and other Israeli researchers who criticised the Israeli policies for the occupation in the Palestinian territories. I argue that all Israeli Universities are implicit in the illegal occupation of Palestine. And among them are Technion and Ben Gurion universities.

    Elbit Systems grants half a million dollars to the Technion in research grants for development of weapons. Technion University has also a policy of full cooperation with “homeland security” projects such as unmanned vehicles that are used for the destructions of Palestinian houses and infrastructures. Ben Gurion University among other Israeli universities gives unconditional support to the illegal occupation forces. It took action against political activists: its security guards started photographing and monitoring left-wing political activists and, especially during Israel’s military attack on Gaza 2008-2009, put in place unreasonable and illegal obstacles, even preventing students from mounting legal political demonstrations and activities. Is this the academic freedom? As part of their training, military pilots receive a B.A. from Ben Gurion University in the course of a single year instead of the normal three years. Ben Gurion University also outdid all other Israeli universities by giving EURO 35 for each day of service to students who went on reserve duty in the attack on Gaza in 2008.

    I believe we should be careful when we speak about academic freedom in Israeli Universities while they are progressively supporting the disrespect of human rights in Palestine. I would like to invite you to read about the actual functions of Israel Universities through this report: http://bnarchives.yorku.ca/223/02/20060900nb_cheap_wars_aic_web.htm.

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  89. STORY WRITTEN FOR & USED WITH PERMISSIONPosted: March 9, 2006Pockets of liquid water may exist near the surface of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus, the apparent source of huge Yellowstone-type geysers seen erupting from the moon’s south polar region by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, scientists reported today. If so, Enceladus would join a very short list of bodies in the solar system with environments that could, in theory at least, support life. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version “What we have found on Enceladus – simple organics, excess heat and evidence for liquid water – represents the Holy Grail of modern day planetary exploration, and we’ve just stumbled upon it,” said Cassini imaging team leader Carolyn Porco. “How cool is that?”It is not yet clear what process might be generating the energy needed to thaw ice in the ultra cold realm, but it may be a combination of natural radioactive heating and tidal flexing caused by Saturn’s gravity, coupled with an era of heating in the past.While the heat source is not yet clear, the results are. High resolution images and data from other instruments aboard Cassini show towering plumes erupting from long fractures dubbed “tiger stripes” in the fractured terrain near the south pole. Based on the volume and size of the ice particles spewing out, scientists believe they may originate from near-surface reservoirs of water that have been warmed above the freezing point.”This finding has substantially broadened the range of environments in the solar system that might support life,” Porco said in an email. “And it doesn’t get any more significant than that. I’d say that if we did nothing else at Saturn, this discovery alone and its possible biological implications would have made the Cassini mission worthwhile.”Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:CASSINI IMAGERY OF ENCELADUS VIDEO:INTERVIEW WITH CASSINI SCIENTIST The Cassini imaging team, led by Porco of the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo., reported the findings in the current issue of Science magazine.Carrying a suite of sophisticated instruments, Cassini braked into orbit around Saturn in July 2004 after a seven-year voyage from Earth. Since then, it’s been looping around the planet in a series of ever-changing orbits, studying its spectacular ring system, its atmosphere, the space environment near Saturn and many of the planet’s more interesting moons. Much of the early attention has been focused on Titan, a moon larger than Mercury that is shrouded in a thick atmosphere.The much smaller Enceladus, just 300 miles or so across but one of the brightest moons in the solar system, has long been a target of interest because of earlier observations that hinted at an unusual surface. Cassini’s observations have raised that interest to a new level. Plumes of icy material extend above the southern polar region of Saturn’s moon Enceladus as imaged by the Cassini spacecraft in February 2005. The monochrome view is presented along with a color-coded version on the right. The latter reveals a fainter and much more extended plume component. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version “Images taken as early as 16 January 2005, images acquired during the February and July 2005 flybys, and those taken in late November 2005 have yielded striking visual evidence of many narrow jets of fine icy particles emanating from the south polar terrain,” the imaging team wrote in Science.”They also have yielded indications of extreme geologic youth in the SPT, morphological evidence of a change over time in surface stresses in the southern hemisphere, and possible evidence of an epoch of intense heating in the past.”During the November 2005 flyby, Cassini images revealed “many distinct near-surface jets, emanating from the surface in a variety of directions and supplying a much bigger, fainter plume towering over the south polar region by at least 435 km (270 miles),” the team wrote.The source of the jets appears to be the so-called tiger stripes, a family of long, roughly parallel features that are typically 1,600 feet or so deep, about a mile wide and some 80 miles long. Most of the ice seen erupting in plumes falls back to the surface, but about 1 percent escapes and contributes to Saturn’s E ring.”At the moment, we interpret these observations to indicate that the south polar jets are the primary source of the E-ring,” the science team writes. “The fact that almost all of the observed particles in the jets’ extended plume are falling back to the surface may explain the extreme brightness of the interstripe plains as being due to freshly fallen snow.”As for the heat source, there are two possibilities: “either sublimating ice, above or below ground, or underground reservoirs of boiling liquid erupting through vents in the tiger stripes.” The second option seems to fit the observations best and “the erupting mixture of vapor and liquid – or, in the case of Enceladus, vapor, liquid and ice particles – is like a cold Yellowstone geyser.”Heat from radioactive decay and tidal stress alone do not appear sufficient to produce the presumed reservoirs. But the moon may have undergone more extreme heating in the past due to changes in its orbital path around Saturn and the lingering traces of that heat, plus the ongoing radioactive and tidal processes, just might be enough to produce the necessary heating. As Saturn’s active moon Enceladus continues to spew icy particles into space, scientists struggle to understand the mechanics of what is going on beneath the fractured south polar terrain. This graphic illustrates key aspects of the model proposed by the Cassini imaging science team. Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science InstituteDownload larger image version While scientists don’t yet understand the details of how liquid water can exist close to the surface of such a cold world, “we cannot exclude the possibility that the processes producing the observed heating might result in local regions with even higher temperatures, leading to subsurface reservoirs of liquid water.”Based on data from NASA’s Galileo Jupiter probe, researchers believe the jovian moon Europa and others may harbor subsurface reservoirs of water. But in those cases, the presumed water is at least several miles below the surface and no plumes like those seen rising from Enceladus have been obsesrved.Porco said the reservoirs on Enceladus may be no more than a few tens of meters deep.”We previously knew that Mars, the subsurface of Mars, might have water and therefore living organisms,” Porco told CBS News. “We knew that moons like Europa around Jupiter … might also be regions or bodies where we might find subterranean water. But now Enceladus has become and even more exciting target because this is a body where the water is closer to the surface. And also, it’s not bathed in the intense radiation environment that Europa is.”Porco said the discovery could lead to “a redirection of our plans in exploring the solar system to focus on Enceladus as the next body we go to.”But not in the near term. NASA funding for space science is being cut back to help pay for the Bush administration’s program to send astronauts back to the moon as a prelude for eventual manned flights to Mars.John Glenn Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The historic first orbital flight by an American is marked by this commemorative patch for John Glenn and Friendship 7.Final Shuttle Mission PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!The crew emblem for the final space shuttle mission is available in our store. Get this piece of history!Celebrate the shuttle programFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This special commemorative patch marks the retirement of NASA’s Space Shuttle Program. Available in our store!Anniversary Shuttle PatchFree shipping to U.S. addresses!This embroidered patch commemorates the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program. 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One early result intriguing scientists concerns Saturn’s Cassini Division, the large gap between the A and B rings. While Saturn’s rings are almost exclusively composed of water ice, new findings show the Cassini Division contains relatively more “dirt” than ice. Further, the particles between the rings seem remarkably similar to the dark material that scientists saw on Saturn’s moon, Phoebe. These dark particles refuel the theory that the rings might be the remnants of a moon. The F ring was also found to contain more dirt. Evidence from the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft indicates that the grain sizes in Saturn’s rings grade from smaller to larger, related to distance from Saturn. Those data (right) are shown next to a corresponding picture of the rings taken by Cassini’s narrow angle camera. Saturn’s rings are thought to be made up of boulder-size snowballs. By looking at the rings with the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer, the size of the ice crystals, or grains, on the surfaces of those boulders can be determined. Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona Another instrument on Cassini has detected large quantities of oxygen at the edge of the rings. Scientists are still trying to understand these results, but they think the oxygen may be left over from a collision that occurred as recently as January of this year. “In just two days, our ideas about the rings have been expanded tremendously,” said Dr. Linda Spilker, of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., deputy project scientist for the Cassini-Huygens mission. “The Phoebe-like material is a big surprise. What puzzles us is that the A and B rings are so clean and the Cassini Division between them appears so dirty.”The visual and infrared mapping spectrometer onboard Cassini revealed the dirt mixed with the ice in the Cassini Division and in other small gaps in the rings, as well as in the F ring.”The surprising fingerprint in the data is that the dirt appears similar to what we saw at Phoebe. In the next several months we will be looking for the origin of this material,” said Dr. Roger Clark, of the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo., and a member of the Cassini science team. Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging instrument detected the sudden and surprising increase in the amount of atomic oxygen at the edge of the rings. The finding leads scientists to hypothesize that something may have collided with the main rings, producing the excess oxygen. Dr. Donald Shemansky of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, co-investigator for Cassini’s ultraviolet imaging spectrograph instrument, said, “What is surprising is the evidence of a strong, sudden event during the observation period causing substantial variation in the oxygen distribution and abundance.” Although atomic oxygen has not been previously observed, its presence is not a surprise because hydroxyl was discovered earlier from Hubble Space Telescope observations, and these chemicals are both products of water chemistry.Cassini’s examination of Saturn’s atmosphere began while the spacecraft was still approaching the planet. Winds on Saturn near the equator decrease dramatically with altitude above the cloud tops. The winds fall off by as much 140 meters per second (approximately 300 miles per hour) over an altitude range of 300 kilometers (approximately 200 miles) in the upper stratosphere. This is the first time winds have been measured at altitudes so high in Saturn’s atmosphere.”We are finally defining the wind field in three dimensions, and it is very complex,” said Dr. Michael Flasar of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., principal investigator for Cassini’s composite infrared spectrometer. “Temperature maps obtained now that Cassini is orbiting Saturn are expected to show more detail, helping us to unravel the riddles of Saturn’s winds above the cloud tops.”Early Friday (Pacific Time), Cassini imaged Saturn’s largest moon Titan, one of the prime targets for the mission. Titan is thought to harbor simple organic compounds that may be important in understanding the chemical building blocks that led to life on Earth. Although too cold to support life now, Titan serves as a frozen vault to see what early Earth might have been like. Scientists will receive the new data and images from Titan later Friday.The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini-Huygens mission for NASA’s Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.?Additional coverage for subscribers:VIDEO:WATCH FRIDAY’S SCIENCE NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:THURSDAY’S NEWS BRIEFING ON CASSINI’S FIRST PICTURES VIDEO:RING PICTURES ARE PRESENTED WITH EXPERT NARRATION VIDEO:CASSINI RE-DISCOVERS TINY MOONS ATLAS AND PAN VIDEO:CASSINI BOOMING SOUNDS FROM BOW-SHOCK CROSSING VIDEO:CASSINI BEGINS ENGINE FIRING TO ENTER ORBIT VIDEO:BURN ENDS SUCCESSFULLY TO PUT CASSINI IN ORBIT VIDEO:POST-ARRIVAL NEWS CONFERENCE VIDEO:WEDNESDAY’S 12 P.M. 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