Dissertation Abstracts

Impact of Migration on Social Well-Being of Women Labourers in Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Author: Nupur UO Pattanaik, nupur.pattanaik@gmail.com
Department: Sociology
University: Ravenshaw University, India
Supervisor: Prof. Anita Dash
Year of completion: 2018
Language of dissertation: English

Keywords: labour , migration , women , industry
Areas of Research: Labour Market , Migration , Work


Since the earliest times, humanity has been on the move. Some people move in search of work or economic opportunities, to join family, or to study. Others move to escape conflict, persecution, terrorism, or human rights violations. Others move in response to the adverse effects of climate change, natural disasters, or other environmental factors. Today, more people than ever live in a country other than the one in which they were born. According to the IOM World Migration Report 2020, as of June 2019 the number of international migrants was estimated to be almost 272 million globally, 51 million more than in 2010. Nearly two thirds were labour migrants. International migrants comprised 3.5% of the global population in 2019, compared to 2.8% in 2000 and 2.3% in 1980. India has an estimated 40 million internal migrant workers, with a majority being located in the informal sector – a sector characterized by a lack of legal regulation and structural precocity. Diasporas, sometimes referred to as expatriates or transnational communities, play an important role in leveraging migration’s benefits for development. Migration is also a social phenomenon which influences human life and the environment. Hence, migration has a great impact on any geographical area and is known as one of the three basic factors of population growth (the other two being mortality and fertility). Migration involves certain phases to go through; hence, it is a process. Lack of preparedness, difficulties in adjusting to the new environment, the complexity of the local system, language difficulties, cultural disparities and adverse experiences often cause distress to the migrants. Subsequently it has a negative impact on their mental well-being. Due to globalization, modernization, improved technologies and developments in all sectors, migration and its impact on human well-being is a contemporary issue. Measuring issues relating to diaspora groups is challenging, as there is no agreed-upon definition of “diasporas”. Data on migrant stocks can act as a proxy for diaspora populations, and remittance data are also closely linked to the study of diasporas. Since the 1990s, many states have established wide-ranging programmes aimed at promoting relations with diasporas. However, differences in definitions and a lack of robust monitoring and evaluation mean that comparative analysis of these policies is difficult. Women migrants have been an important element in recent times in migration studies and well-being measures. Human well-being is an important concern for Amartya Sen. Human well-being in terms of enhancing the functioning and capability of individuals constitutes a significant contribution of Amartya Sen to rethinking welfare and development as a quest for freedom. The thesis evaluates the plight of women labour migrants in the industry in Bhubaneswar, Odisha and how their social well-being has been challenged.