Dissertation Abstracts

Strengthening DDR through Reparations: An Exploration of Gender Blindness in the Niger Delta Post-Amnesty Reintegration Programme

Author: Folami, Olakunle M, xtianfayol@yahoo.com
Department: Faculty of Social Sciences
University: Ulster University, United Kingdom
Supervisor: Professor Brandon Hamber
Year of completion: 2016
Language of dissertation: English

Keywords: Gender , DDR , Reparation , Exclusion
Areas of Research: Law , Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution , Human Rights and Global Justice


The Niger Delta conflict over oil exploitation and exploration by the multinational oil companies raged for over five decades before amnesty and, subsequently, Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) was introduced to resolve the conflict. The consequences of the conflict were severe on human life, property and the nation’s economy. The problem with the DDR adopted in the region is that it only accommodated ex-militants who were mainly men. Women and other victims whose human rights have been violated were not recognised. The inhabitants of the Niger Delta region were not satisfied with DDR. The major focus of this thesis therefore, is how to combine reintegration and reparations in order to recognise most especially women that lost their husbands, children, relations and property to the conflict, and those that were killed and suffered sexual abuses. The thesis is anchored in Recognition Theory as a framework to explain the combination of DDR and reparations in order to include gender and victims’ rights in the entire peacebuilding process. Gbaramatu Kingdom in the Niger Delta, Nigeria was selected as the study location. Being an exploratory study, the thesis used qualitative methods of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to collect data from 58 participants. The thesis found support for the United Nations’ all-inclusive DDR approach as a method of peacebuilding if it included effective reintegration and reparations for those that have suffered various forms of human rights violations. The thesis recommends the consideration of reparations in the DDR process in order to address human rights abuses, to reduce resentment and to show that women and other victims of the conflict were not forgotten.